How does electricity reach our home?

Our life is incomplete without electricity. We need electricity many times from morning till evening. Whether it is a home, office, or any big industry, without electricity no work can proceed. So, in this article, I will tell you the full process of traveling electricity from the power plant to our home premice. 

# Do you know the process of electricity generation? 

There are four stages of Power flow which are-

  • Generation
  • Transmission
  • Distribution
  • Consumption.

Coming electricity from the power plant to our home is very complex process. The wires of electricity have to cross the river, drain and what not to come to our house. Let us understand this process in more detail. 

# How electricity is produced?

Where electricity is produced is known as a power station. Electricity can be produced through various methods.

Thermal Power Plant
Thermal Power Plant

Thermal Power Plant – In this process water is heated by burning coal and its high-pressure steam is released on the turbines. Because of its pressure turbines start to rotate at high speed. The shaft of the turbine is connected to the alternator shaft, which rotates the alternator and produces power. In India, most of the electricity is generated through Thermal Power Plant that runs on Coal. Thermal Power plants are usually nearer to coal mines. 

Hydro Plants
Hydro Electric Plants

Hydroelectric Power Plant –  In this power plant, the shaft of the alternator is rotated with the help of forced Water. 

Diesel Plant, Growmore Tips
Diesel Power Plant

Diesel Power Plant – In a diesel power plant there is an engine that runs on the diesel. And with the help of that engine, the alternator shaft rotates and electric power creates.

Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear Power Plant – In this power plant water is heated by burning atomic fuel like Uranium, Thorium, etc. Then this water is converted into high-pressure steam and with the help of this steam alternator is rotated and electric power generated.

Solar Plants, Electricity to Home
Solar Power Plant

Other Power Plant – Solar Power Plant, Tidal Power Plant, Wind Power Plant, etc.

# Power Production Contribution-

As of today, the contribution of these power plants in India’s electricity production is as follows:

Thermal Power Plant – 68%

Nuclear Power Plant – 2%

Hydro Power Plant – 14.5%

Other Power Plants – 15.5%

# Why it Needs to Step-Up The Generated Power?

Now, In these power plants, 11-kilovolt electric power is generated. To transfer this 11 KV electricity hundreds of kilometers is very difficult and costly. 

Reaching the electric power to the house is difficult due to resistance and I2R losses present in the conductor through which we carry electricity. Due to this reason 11KV power is converted (step-up) into 132KV / 220KV or 400KV with the help of a transformer and then this power is transmitted. The step-up rate is decided on the distance to be covered by transmission lines.  

Primary Substation:

Electricity Reaches To Our Home
Transmission Lines

After transmission, this 400KV is brought to the primary substation where it is step-down from 400KV to 66KV or 33KV. The transformer which converts low voltage to high voltage is called “Step-up Transformer” and which converts high voltage to low voltage is called “Step-down Transformer”.

Secondary Substation:

Electricity Transmission Diagram
Image Credit:

In the secondary substation, this 66KV or 33KV is converted into 11KV. And from here, electricity is transported to the ‘distribution substation’ through the primary distribution line or feeder line. 

Distribution Substation is usually very near to load. From here, 11KV is sent to large Industries. Because they need 11 KV supply. This is known as the Primary Distribution System. 

Then, 11KV is again step-down to 440 volts or 230 volts. And from here, 440v line voltage and 230v phase voltage are supplied to electricity customers through a Secondary Distribution line. And from here, consumers can take a single-phase or three-phase connection according to their needs. It is also called a service line, by tapping with this wire, we supply our wiring installation.

After going through this whole process, power reaches our house from the generation center.

So, In this article, we have seen how electricity reaches our home. If you like our content then subscribe to our blog and Stay Connected With Us. 

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